FEDERAL DISTRICT: MOSCOW • THE CAPITAL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION • POPULATION: 12 500 120 INHABITANTS
Moscow – capital of Russia; the other epithets are paler in comparison with this. No matter how trite it sounds, Moscow is a city of contrasts. This is the “third Rome”, and “big village”, and “non-retro”, a place for the elite and for all. Moscow – it’s Sodom and Gomorrah in one bottle and the orderly silence of almost entirely village alleys.
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HUGE, NOISY, EXPENSIVE AND BEAUTIFUL. SPEAKING ABOUT MOSCOW, EVERYONE WILL ADD THEIR DEFINITION TO THIS CITY. AND HARDLY ANYONE WILL REPEAT
So we have collected for you a number of facts about our capital:
01: According to most researchers and historians, Moscow got its name from a river flowing nearby. There are two versions of the origin of the very name “Moscow”. Supporters of the first version believe that the word “Moscow” is of Finnish origin, since once on the banks of the river there were ancient settlements of Finnish tribes. According to this version, “mosk” is translated as a bear and “wa” as water. Supporters of the second version believe that this name was given by the ancient Slavs, and in the Old Slavonic “Moscow” means “wet”, “damp”.
02: Moscow has its own coat of arms, flag and anthem. The coat of arms depicts George the Victorious, piercing a spear of a mythical snake, which symbolizes victory over all enemies who decided to encroach on the city. The hymn of Moscow was created on the basis of the song “My Moscow”.
03: In the city, there are federal bodies of state power of the Russian Federation. Local government bodies are also developed. Moscow is the largest financial centre. Most of the economy is managed by the capital. The largest banks and offices of companies are concentrated in the city.
04: Also Moscow – the largest transport hub of Russia. Inside the city many types of public transport are developed, the most popular is the metro.
05: No one knows where the traffic jams come from and where they disappear in Moscow.
06: In 1851, a railway communication between Moscow and St. Petersburg was opened.
07: The Moscow metro is the main means of transportation within the city. 5-th in terms of intensity of use (after the metros of Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo and Shanghai). It is well-known for the rich finishing of a number of stations by the examples of the art of the era of socialist realism. The first line was opened on May 15, 1935, and went from the station “Sokolniki” to the station “Park Kultury”. The system consists of 12 lines with a total length of 325.4 km in a double-track calculation. In the Moscow metro, there are 194 stations, 44 of which are recognized as objects of cultural heritage. By 2020, according to the plans of the Moscow government, 62 more stations will be built, and the length of the subway will increase by 137 km.
08: During the Patriotic War of 1812, Moscow was captured by Napoleon’s troops and badly damaged by fire. According to various estimates, as a result of the Moscow fire, up to 80% of the buildings burned down. The process of restoring Moscow lasted more than thirty years, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was built. By the end of the XIX century, a tram appeared in Moscow.
09: The tram is a very old kind of Moscow public transport; the first electric line was opened in 1899.
10: The largest zoo, not only in Moscow but throughout Russia, was founded in 1864. At the moment, it has more than 3000 animals of 550 species from all over the world.
11: The first water pipe in Moscow appeared in 1804, and the sewage system in 1898.
12: The first telegraph earned in 1872 and the Muscovites started using telephones in 1882.
13: The first 10 electric lamps of Moscow were lit on the towers of the Kremlin and the Lefortovo Palace in 1856 in the days of the coronation of Emperor Alexander II.
14: Moscow is surrounded by forest tracts; it has many park areas. One of the oldest plantations in Moscow is the oaks in Kolomna Park, which according to legend are about 700 years old.
15: Moscow is a pioneer in the development of higher women’s education. Its beginning is associated with the opening of the Moscow Higher Women’s Courses by Professor VI Gerie in 1872. Today it is the Moscow State Pedagogical University.
16: In 1910, there were 606 restaurants and taverns in Moscow; 933 taverns, eateries, tea, coffee; 25 buffets and 905 breweries and wineries. Today, according to the Department of Consumer Market and Services, in Moscow there are 3,500 restaurants and cafes.
17: The city is the keeper of the two most famous and famous diamonds. The first – “Shah” weighing 88 carats, he was presented with a Tehran checkmate to Emperor Nicholas I as a sign of reconciliation after the murder of Russian diplomat AS Griboyedov. The second – the diamond “Orlov”, he was brought from India by Count Orlov, who bought it as a gift to the Empress Catherine II.
18: There are 500 libraries in the capital, and the largest one, not only in Moscow but in Europe, is the Russian State Library (the former Lenin Library). It has more than 40 ml. books that are written in 247 different languages. By the number of informative sources, it ranks 2nd in the world (at the first National Library of Congress in Washington).
19: The capital of Russia is not only the largest industrial city, but also a cultural center. Here is the Academy of Sciences, which includes 78 research centers, as well as 90 other different departments.
20: In Moscow, more than 150 theaters, 109 cinemas, 142 exhibition halls, more than 400 museums and 31 concert halls.
21: The first public theater was built on the Red Square near the Nikolaevsky Tower in 1702-1703 at the behest of Tsar Peter I. Among the theaters, today are the most famous: The Bolshoi and Maly theatres, the Sovremennik Theater, the Satire Theater. Among the museums, the Museum of Anthropology (many known as the Kunstkamera) and the Zoological Museum, as well as the Pushkin Museum, stand out.
22: The Tretyakov Gallery is simply obliged to visit every guest of the capital. It exhibits the largest collection of Russian fine arts. Collections that are in the Tretyakov Gallery and the Pushkin Museum can be envied even by the world’s leading museums.
23: Of course, the most famous places in the capital are the Red Square and the Moscow Kremlin. The Moscow Kremlin is the historical centre of the capital and the official residence of the Russian president. The walls and towers of the Kremlin were built in 1485-1516. They form an irregular triangle. Also, the Kremlin is the largest fortress in Europe.
24: Red Square is the most important square in the city. Near the Kremlin is the main post – post No. 1 of the guard of honour, next to the grave of an unknown soldier. In winter, an ice rink is opened on the square, which can accommodate up to 500 people at once. All major festivities take place on this square. On Victory Day, May 9, military parades take place here.
25: The Kremlin Wall is home to the world-famous Lenin Mausoleum. There is also a Necropolis, where important political and military figures of the country are buried.
26: In the capital, there are large film studios. Famous “Mosfilm” and “Soyuzmultfilm”, as well as the Gorky Film Studio. The city annually hosts an international film festival, where a competition of debut and experimental works by various directors is held.
27: Also in Moscow are the famous Vorobyovy Gory. This is the high right bank of the Moscow River, where every year the school graduates meet their first dawn of adult life.
28: Another attraction of Moscow is the Novodevichy Convent. It was founded in 1524. This is an Orthodox nunnery of the Russian Church. The monastery is a branch of the State Historical Museum.
29: There is a legend that the famous treasures of the Templars are in Moscow. Treasures were secretly exported from Paris during the defeat of the Order. Preserved in Moscow and traces of the Templars’ stay. They can be seen on the walls of the St. Daniel Monastery. The first tier of the gate church is decorated with moulded rosettes in the form of the Templar’s arms – a six-petalled rose in a white square frame, the corners of which cut four rings.
30: In Moscow is the highest television tower in Europe – the Ostankino Tower. To climb to its very top, you have to overcome 3544 steps. For 10 years running on this ladder, the best result was the run time on all stages – 11 min. and 55s.
31: The largest in the world clock, a barometer and a thermometer are placed on the building of the Moscow State University. They are installed on the towers of 18-storey buildings. The dial’s diameter is 9 meters, the length of the hour hand is 3 meters 70 cm (weight 50 kg), and the length of the minute hand is 4.20 meters (weight 39 kg). The height of the digits is 70 cm.
32: In Moscow, there are the famous “7 Stalin high-rise buildings” – seven tall buildings that were built in 1940-1950. In 1947 the Russian capital turned 800 years old. It was to this solemn event that the authorities decided to build seven high-rise buildings that were supposed to personify the might of the Soviet people and the great country.
33: Since 1938, the sculpture “Border guard with a dog” at the metro station “Ploshchad Revolutsii” – an object of worship of passengers. Even in the hectic, many people remember to rub the dog’s nose. At first, it was fun for the students: you’ll scratch your nose – you will pass the test, you’ll scratch your paw – the exam. This has long been forgotten, and the dog’s nose has become a harbinger of luck.
34: Along with the traditional monuments of Pushkin, Lermontov and many other worthy people in Moscow, there are also strange monuments. For example, a stool, melted cheese, a janitor and a student.
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The rest of the historical facts and not only you will be narrated by our obsessive guides.
We also recommend watching a video about Moscow prepared by talented guys from Canada FTD Facts, who shoot fascinating videos about everything and about everyone ↓
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